Early detection is still our best defense in the war against melanoma since the thickness of a melanoma is one the best predictors of how aggressive it will be. Thin melanomas can be surgically treated right here in our office and have a very good prognosis. More aggressive melanomas may require adjunctive testing or therapy requiring us to work in conjunction with oncologists or surgeons. Over the past 10 years, our understanding of the biology of melanoma and the body’s natural defensive responses to this disease has increased dramatically. Recently, clinical trials testing new treatments have demonstrated substantial tumor shrinkage, a prolonged remission interval, and even improved overall survival — benefits never achieved before.